Sunday, December 17, 2017

  

The area of ​​Skhinias presents a wide variety of vegetation which reflects the varying soil and aqueous conditions. Displays while also strong image degradation and decline associated with the reckless human activity. Classified into four sections vegetation, the vegetation of sandy beaches, wetlands vegetation, forest pine (P. pinea) and Aleppo pine (P. halepensis) and scrub.

The vegetation of sandy beaches stretching between the bare coastline and raw forest trees pine (P. pinea) and Aleppo pine (P. halepensis), along the beach in a very thin zone develops one vegetation ammophilous and ammonitrophilous species. These species are sparsely scattered presence alone Elymus farctus (Agropyron junceum) some forms compact islands a few square meters. The vegetation is highly degraded and stopped both bare surfaces of loose sand created by the strong human presence, and the presence of individual trees, shrubs and brushwood, as P. halepensis, P. pinea, Juniperus Oxycedrous spp macrocarpa, J. Phoenicea , Pistacia lentiscus, Anthyllis hermaniae, Centaurea spinosa.

The main species found in this zone are: Elymus farctus, Sporolobus pungens, Eryngium maritimum, Medicago marina, Pseudorlaya pumila, Medicago litoralis, Mathiola tricuspidata, Allium phalareum, Cakile maritime, Anthemis peregrine, Bromus rigidus, Erodium malacoides, Echium arenarium. Rarely found the Cyperus capitatus and Xanthium strumarium and even more rarely Pancratium maritimum.

The vegetation of wetlands extending north and northeast of the pine forest. This area is flooded most of the time by water, while during the summer dried in bulk. As to the halophytic vegetation of the plant communities that occur mainly is Salicornietum fruticosae and secondarily the Juncetum maritimi, the Junceum acuti and Salicornietum radicantis. H vegetation composition will vary by locations displayed more rich in slight elevations created and quite often in lower positions, some species such as Salicornia fruticosa, Juncus subulatus create the pure plant communities. The species composition of the halophytic vegetation is mainly Salicornia fruticosa, Juncus subulatus, Inula crithmoides, Halimione portucaloides, Francenia hirsute, Pholiurus philiformis, Pholiurus incurvatus, Plantago crassifolia, Pucinellia maritime, P. distans, Aeluropus litoralis, Triglochin bulbosum, Sacrocornia perennis, Limonium bellidifolium, Juncus maritimus, Juncus acutus. The species Tamarix hampana end and T. parviflora is quite widespread and occupy the slopes of elevations. On those surfaces after drainage and peichomatoseis not inundated by water, the halophytic vegetation has begun to decline and the position occupied meadow herbaceous plants and woody species such as Pistacia lentiscus, Juniperus phoenicea. Rarely in elevations near the forest settles the Pinus halepensis.

The forest pine (P. pinea) and Aleppo pine (P. halepensis) occupies a band width of 450 meters and a length of about 3 km along the coast. The composition of the overstorey participate P. halepensis and P. pinea, but their participation is not uniform throughout. In the eastern half of the Aleppo area forming pure forest sparsely scattered pine mainly people along the beach. From the middle of the area shows the umbrella pine, whose presence begins to thicken irregularly westward to reach the western edge in pure forest. Generally in the forest most of it is still quite dense canopy with greater than 0.7. An exception is the forest of Aleppo and a thin band along the beach whose canopy is less than 0.4. Existing gaps are generally limited in scope and does not interrupt the continuity of the forest.

The pine forest is composed of persons older than 70 years and involved only in the overstorey. Smaller classes height and age are rarely encountered, and the regeneration is limited to non-existent. The reason for the lack of regeneration beyond human presence is and until a few years grazing since young pine seedlings are palatable food for the animals. In the forest of Aleppo clusters have irregular ypokipeftoeidi form or peers in small areas. The renaissance is here limited to a lesser degree but by the pine and located sheltered by scrub vegetation gaps. Generally, the regeneration of both species is not satisfactory due to human presence and grazing existed until recently. The Aleppo pine is observed to exhibit a trend of prevalence in the region as shown by the progressive establishment of this in the gaps left by the umbrella pine.

The shrubby understorey of the forest is not continuous but occurs usually maintained where it has broken the canopy or ground water level is high enough. It is characteristic that while human presence decreases from east to west and from the beach weight inside the forest, density of vegetation following reverse. In the composition of understorey dominated by Pistacia lentiscus and follow the species Juniperus phoenicea, Quercus coccifera, Myrtus communis on wetter sites and Juniperus macrocarpa mainly on the beach, Prassium majus, Ruscus aculeatus, Smilax aspera sporadically Rhamnus alaternus. In the understory of thamonn often appears kind Rubia peregrine and in places where the canopy is more fragmented, species of phryganic formations such as Anthyllis hermaniae, Cistus incanus, Cistus salviefolius, Coridothymus capitatus and Centaurea spinosa.

The herbaceous vegetation increases with the removal of the sea due to the reduction of human presence. Of the most frequently occurring species in the herbaceous vegetation are Piptatherum miliaceum, Brachypodium retusum, Linum maritimum, Muscari commosum, Cynosurus echinatus, Silene colorata, Lagurus ovatus, Seriole aethensis, Briza media, Euphorbia peploides, Bromus rubens, Saligeria cretica, Vicia dasycarpa, Phagnalon graecum, Crucianella latifolia, Vulpia myuros, Brassica turnefortii, Knautia integrifolia, Hordeum murinum, Plantago lagopus, Erodium malacoides, Erodium cicutarium.

From the forest phytosociological terms of P.pinea - P. halepensis belongs to the association Oleo-ceratonion and plant community Oleo-lentiscetum.

H scrub vegetation found in the area is the continuation of the State closed the east forest Schinia and extends the hilly formation Mitika - Cynosure, covered by sparse shrubby vegetation. The species that dominate are Juniperus phoenicea and Olea oleaster and involved the Pistacia lentiscus, Ephedra campylopoda, Lonicera etrusca, Prassium majus and rarely the Quercus coccifera, Prunus webbii and Pistacia terebinthus. Upstairs shrubs appear also Clematis cirrhosa, Tamus communis and Bryonia alba. Among the bushes and on surfaces that have fallen shrubs installed data phryganic formations with high and low brushwood as Phlomis fruticosa, Euphorbia acanthothamnos, Euphorbia dendroides, Coridothymus capitatus, Ballota acetabulosa, Saxcropoterium spinosum, Micromeria Juliana, Micromeria graeca, Fumana Arabica, Fumana thymifolia, Phagnalon graecum.

In herbaceous vegetation there is a great variety of items and quite rightly said that Kynosoura is a wonderful botanical garden. The most frequently occurring species are Lagurus ovatus, Trifolium angustifolium, Lagoecia cuminoides, Aegilops geniculate, Urospermum picroides, Psoralea bituminosa, Nigela arvensis, Briza media, Knautia integrifolia, Tragopogon purifolius, Crupina crupinastrum, Tordylium apulum, Cyclamen neapolitanum, Fritilaria oblique, Buphleurum flavum , Avena barbata, Dactylis glomerata, Aegilops macrochaeta, Medicago disciformis, Brachypodium retusum, Brachypodium distachyon, Medicago coronata, Trifolium stellatum, Trifolium campestre.

From the viewpoint phytosociological vegetation Mitika - Cynosure subject to Oleoceratonion especially in Oleo-lentiscetum elements of Cistomicromerietea and Thero-brachypodietea.

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